Introduction, history of microbiology, its branches, scope and its importance.
Introduction to Prokaryots and Eukaryots.
Study of ultra-structure and morphological classification of bacteria.
Nutritional requirements, raw materials used for culture media and physical parameters for growth, growth curve, isolation and preservation methods for pure cultures, cultivation of anaerobes, and quantitative measurement of bacterial growth (total and viable count).
Study of different types of phase contrast microscopy, dark field microscopy and electron microscopy.
Identification of bacteria using staining techniques (Simple, Gram’s and Acid-fast staining) and biochemical tests (IMViC).
Study of principle, procedure, merits, demerits and applications of physical, chemical and mechanical methods of sterilization.
Evaluation of the efficiency of sterilization methods.
Equipments employed in large scale sterilization.
Study of morphology, classification, reproduction/replication and cultivation of Fungi and Virus.
Classification and mode of action of disinfectants.
Factors influencing disinfection, antiseptics and their evaluation for bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions.
Evaluation of bacteriostatic and bactericidal agents.
Sterility testing of products (solids, liquids, ophthalmic and other sterile products) according to IP, BP and USP.
Designing of aseptic area, laminar flow equipments; study of different sources of contamination in an aseptic area and methods of prevention, clean area classification.
Principles and methods of different microbiological assay. Methods for standardisation of antibiotics, vitamins and amino acids.
Assessment of a new antibiotic and testing of anti-microbial activity of a new substance.
General aspects- environmental cleanliness.
Types of spoilage, factors affecting the microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical products, sources and types of microbial contaminants, assessment of microbial contamination and spoilage.
Preservation of pharmaceutical products using antimicrobial agents, evaluation of microbial stability of formulations.
Growth of animal cells in culture, general procedure for cell culture; primary, established and transformed cell cultures.
Application of cell cultures in pharmaceutical industry and research.